Costa Rica, the long form Republic of Costa Rica, Spanish República de Costa Rica, Central America is a unitary constitutional republic with a presidential system.
Much of its territory is located on the Central American isthmus and is bordered by the Caribbean Sea to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west and south, bordered by Nicaragua to the north and southeast by Panama, but also includes Cocos Island located in the Pacific ocean more than 500 kilometers of coasts. Its capital, San Jose, official language is Spanish and the currency colon. Its motto is « ¡Vivan siempre el trabajo y la paz ! « ( » Long live forever work and peace ! « ) The flag consists of five white and blue respectively blue horizontal stripes, red, white, . His anthem » Noble patria, you hermosa bandera »
Costa Rica is often called the « Switzerland of Central America. »
Since 1959, Costa Rica is a neutral country became the first nation in the world to constitutionally abolished its army.
Consequently, the country stands in Central America through its development model giving priority to education, health and protection
In 2011, Costa Rica was inhabited by 4.3 million people and so was the 123rd most populous country and the fifth of the seven countries of Central America, to Panama and Belize.
Geology, topography and hydrography
Costa Rica is organized geographically into four main areas: a series of mountain ranges (volcanic Cordillera de Guanacaste, Central Volcanic Cordillera and Cordillera de Talamanca, which rises to 3,820 m Cerro Chirripo northwest-southeast axis separates the plains washed on the Caribbean coast, the rugged Pacific coast.)
The Cordillera Central has a multitude of active and extinct volcanoes. The Rincon de la (1916 m) with many mud puddles on its flanks, the Tenorio (1 916 m), the Miravalles (2 208 m), the Turrialba (3 328 m)… The three most visited are the Volcán Poas (2 704 m), the main crater occupied by an acid lake, is the largest in the world (1,320 m diameter), lrazu (3 432 m) to the acid green lake, and Arenal (1 633 m), active since 1968, which are built near many hotels and spas.
In the central high plains (Meseta Central) sector of the Cordillera, Costa Rica is densely populated with San Jose, Alajuela, Heredia and Cartago, some of the largest cities of the country. Puerto Limon on the Caribbean coast, is the largest port in the country. San José, the capital of 2 million people with its suburbs.
Costa Rican coast, province of Puntarenas on the Pacific coast is more open to tourism with many resorts popular with wealthy Californians (Tamarindo, Puntarenas, Quepos) and surfers in search of sensational waves (Ollie's Point et Playa Grande au nord de Tamarindo, Jaco et Playa Hermosa dans la région de Puntarenas).
The climate of Costa Rica is characterized by a dry season (December to April) and a rainy season (May to November). Costa Rica is located in the tropics (between 8 and 11 ° north latitude). However, from one place to another, precipitation differ considerably rainfall in San Jose are 1867 mm per year, while in Puerto Limon on the Caribbean coast, it falls 3,518 mm of rain per year.
Faune et Flore
Costa Rica has an exceptional flora fauna, with 6% of the world's biodiversity is there (for a country which represents only 0.03% of the land surface). 1.3% of the fauna is endemic countries. In 2007, the Instituto de Biodiversidad Nacinal considered 160 new species were discovered each year in Costa Rica. More than 25% of the territory is occupied by national parks (26) and reserves the political context of the country and its success in the field of tourism, helping to preserve biodiversity.
This exceptional diversity is due to the geographical location of Costa Rica, between North America and South America, which is conducive to animal movements. Oceanic influences of the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, each with a particular climate, also play a role. Generally, one can distinguish three climatic areas: the Caribbean coast, humid and semi-swamp, the drier Pacific coast, and the central area, high terrain, the vegetation is dry. With abundant rainfall during the rainy season, the country is watered thousands of waterfalls. They attract a unique wildlife: frogs, hummingbirds or butterflies, including the majestic electric blue morpho wings.
Costa Rica is among the 14 nations have placed more than 23% of their territory under protection (25.6% of national ecological reserves or park). This country has almost succeeded in stopping deforestation (75% of the land was covered by forest in 1950, 25% today) although there are still some actions illegal deforestation rampant sporadically during the year, taking place even within protected nature reserves.
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